Freud’s 3 Historical Blows to Human Narcissism

Freud thought that it was healthy to accept a certain degree of hopelessness. He put forth 3 intractable circumstances that, once internalized, can foster this healthy hopelessness:

  1. The Copernican revolution: the simple fact that the earth is not the center of the universe, but is simply floating around the ether with a bunch of other planets.
  2. The Darwinian revolution: the origin of mankind does not lead back to Gods so much as it does to apes.
  3. The unconscious mind: we are barely masters of our own house and minds; we are governed by a powerful force of which we have no direct awareness.


Vital Signs, Discovering and Sustaining your Passion for Life – Gregg Levoy

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